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The Risk Factors for Stroke and Heart Attack
Healthy blood vessels are clear and flexible. Nonetheless, with age and unhealthy lifestyle factors, they can become blocked (usually from a blood clot) and stiff and this can restrict blood flow around the body. If this happens in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle, it can trigger angina or a heart attack; if it is in an artery to the brain, it can result in a stroke.
What Causes Blockages in the Blood Vessel?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is normally associated with plaque and blood clot (thrombus) formation which resulted from dysfunctional or injured blood vessels.
Blood clot is necessary to stop bleeding and restore damaged blood vessels. Once bleeding stops and damaged blood vessel is healed, blood clots are broken down (fibrinolytic action) naturally.
However, imbalance clotting (coagulation) and dissolving (fibrinolysis) process may prevent blood clot from breaking down properly, and thereby accumulated in the blood vessels. These abnormal blood clots, along with plaques in the arteries (blood vessels), obstruct the blood flow around the body, decreasing oxygen supply, eventually resulting in a heart attack or stroke. Blood clots in veins may lead to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism.
|DVT is blood clots formed in a vein deep in the body, usually lower leg or thigh, with symptoms such as pain and swelling on the affected leg, redness or colour change and
warmth on the skin. Pulmonary embolism usually occurs when a blood clot (DVT) travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel. This could damage the lungs and other organs as wellas cause heart failure due to lower blood oxygen levels.
How is a Blood Clot Form?
Blood clot forms when:
• Skin or blood vessel wall is broken (such as cut or internal injury)
• Cholesterol plaques in arteries rupture (most heart attacks and strokes happen when a plaque inside the heart or brain suddenly burst)
• Blood does not flow properly (if blood pools in blood vessel or heart, platelets in blood are more prone to stick together and forms clots)
Note: If fibrinolytic activity is decreased (for ex: age, obesity, high blood pressure), blood clot cannot be removed properly and this will increase the risk of heart attack & stroke.
|Did You Know?
In Singapore, 16 people die from cardiovascular disease (heart diseases and stroke) daily. According to statistics in 2016, cardiovascular disease accounted for 29.5% of all deaths, similar to deaths caused by cancer (29.6%). In other words, nearly 1 out of 3 deaths in Singapore is due to heart diseases or stroke. Thus, early prevention is critically important.
What Causes Arteries to Stiffen?
Arterial stiffness describes the rigidity of the arterial wall and is closely linked with the development of cardiovascular disease. Stiffening is the result of ageing in which elastin in the arterial wall degrades progressively; causing the artery to harden. Measuring one’s pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a means of determining the predictive value for the development of hypertension. Stiffer arteries have higher PWV.
What is Elastin?
Elastin is a rubber-like protein that contains specific amino acids – Desmosine and Isodesmosine (which are not present in other proteins). They are critical to the elasticity and resilience of arteries. Elastin is roughly 1000 times more flexible than collagens and is wrapped around coil-like collagen, providing high flexibility and resilience to the blood vessels. Elastin serves as the principal mediator of pressure wave propagation to smooth blood flow and is particularly abundant in the aorta.
The aorta is the largest artery from the heart, with elastin contributing to 50% of its weight. This enables the aorta to accommodate the high pressure and large amounts of blood pumped from the heart. The elasticity to stretch in response to the heart contractions helps to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the arteries despite the pulsating nature of the blood flow.
The ageing process will progressively degenerates the elastin in the aorta. This causes the aorta to stiffen and strain the heart to pump harder, and potentially results in a heart failure. A number of studies have demonstrated the association between arterial stiffness and stroke attack.
VesseCLEAR EX is developed by Japan Bio Science Laboratory, the leader and pioneer in nattokinase. It is made from 100% concentrated nattokinase NSK-SD® plus Elastin F. NSK-SD® is extracted from non-GMO soybeans which were fermented with Bacillus subtilis natto, via a proprietary process (Patents JP3834048, JP3881494) and results in an extract of high purity, bioavailability and stability. Elastin F is a readily absorbable elastin peptide extracted from bonito fish via a proprietary enzymatic technology from Japan.
Nattokinase - The Key to Smooth Blood Circulation
Nattokinase is an active ingredient extracted from a popular Japanese food known as natto. This traditional cheese-like fermented soy product has been utilised as a folk remedy for heart and circulatory diseases for over 1000 years. This may be why Japan has one of the lowest rates of coronary heart disease in the world (Report: UN Chronicle: The Atlas of Heart Disease & Stroke).
In 1980, Dr. Hiroyuki Sumi, a researcher from University of Chicago discovered that an enzyme in natto has fibrinolytic activity (ability to dissolve blood clot associated with heart attack and stroke) and named it as “nattokinase”, which means “enzyme in natto”. Nattokinase also helps to address high blood viscosity, one of the most neglected symptoms in the development of heart disease and high blood pressure.
Nattokinase has direct and indirect actions on blood clots. However, it does not inhibit the formation of blood clots, in response to wound healing. In other words, nattokinase helps balance the body’s ability of making blood clot and declotting unwanted clots.
How Does Nattokinase Work on a Blood Clot?
Fibrin is a main component of clot. Nattokinase has strong fibrinolytic activity to dissolve web-like fibrin and break down blood clot that have already been formed, thereby removing the clot and promoting healthy blood flow and cardiovascular function.
The No.1 Clinically Studied Nattokinase*
*Based on the number of research studies, as of February 2019
• Authentic nattokinase as recognised by JHFA (Japan Health and Nutrition Food Association) and JNKA (Japan NattoKinase Association)
• Research proven safe & effective. Backed by more than 35 studies.
• Halal* & NSF certified. Compliant with GMP & public health protection standards.
• Patented production technology. Awarded 2 Japanese patents and 3 U.S. patents for the proprietary processing technique.
• 100% natural. Non-irradiated, free of vitamin K2, purine and pungent smell. Vitamin K2 may increase blood clotting and is known to interact with and reduce the effectiveness of Warfarin (blood thinner). Purine is a risk factor for high uric acid and gout.
• Highly safe & stable. Confirmed by human clinical trials, research studies and almost 20 years of safety track records. Nattokinase NSK-SD® is stable for 42 months at room temperature and 18 months at 40oC.
*The Elastin F and encapsulation are not certified halal.
• High bioavailability. Nattokinase level significantly increases in blood 2 hours after intake with peak concentration at 13.3 hours. (Altern Ther Health Med. 19(3): 16-19 (2013)).
<sourced from 李超 on YouTube>
The Key to Supple and Flexible Arteries
Elastin F is a low-molecular-weight elastin peptides derived from bonito fish. This premium Japanese elastin peptide is produced from bulbus arteriosus (BA), a small chamber that connects gill and heart. This high quality Elastin F can be clearly distinguished from elastin derived from fish skin, which has high collagen content.
Premium Quality Elastin Peptides
• Highly Safe. Supported by extensive safety studies.
• Highly Stable with Unique Elastic Property. Unlike other proteins such as fish skin-derived collagen, Elastin F is the only protein with specific cross-linking amino acids - Desmosine and Isodesmosine. They are highly resistant to heat and acidic conditions and hence, are able to support the elasticity of blood vessels.
• High Bioavailability. With a proprietary enzymatic technology that derives low-molecular-weight peptides, Elastin F is readily dissolved in water and easily absorbed in the body.
VesseCLEAR EX is highly recommended for the following individuals:
Those concerned with heart health
Regular alcohol drinkers
Poor eating habits (diet high in fat, cholesterol and low in fibre); meat-lovers
High blood pressure, blood lipids, blood sugar or viscosity
Irregular heartbeat or pulse
Hardening or blockage of arteries (blood vessels)
With stiff arteries and increased pulse velocity (PWV)
Poor blood circulation, such as cold, numb or swollen hands and legs, muscle cramps, stiff shoulder, varicose veins, chronic fatigue etc.
A history of cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease, stroke etc
With family history of poor heart health or stroke issues
Reduced blood flow to limbs due to narrowed arteries with symptoms such as:
- Painful cramping in hip, thigh or calf muscles when walking
- Coldness in lower leg or foot than the other side
- Weak pulse in legs or feet
- Slower growth of toenails
- Shiny skin on legs
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with symptoms such as:
- Mild to severe pain in the affected arm or leg
- Swelling of an arm or leg
- Redness or colour change
- Warmth in the skin
Pulmonary embolism with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath and fast heartbeat
Swollen vein in the region of the anus (haemorrhoid)
Poor Complexion, wrinkles, fine lines, dry skin
Knee or joint pain
Poor immunity or susceptible to virus infection
Beware of counterfeit nattokinase!
Nattokinase is a peculiar enzyme that can be identified by several test methods, including comparison of Oxidised Insulin Chain B Degradation Pattern. Despite readily available test methods, there are still many companies that claim and market counterfeit enzymes as nattokinase, including peptidase, protease and chungkinase that are produced from similar Bacillus species or fungi (Aspergillus oryzae) in Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan and the USA.
Although some of these are able to degrade fibrin in a petri dish (in vitro), there is no indication of its efficacy in the human body. Besides, the comprehensive safety and potency data of nattokinase NSK-SD® could not be applied to these counterfeit nattokinase.
Bozo Research Center, I. 2004. Report: 13-week oral toxicity study of Nattokinase DS (NSK-SD) in rats. B-5170.
Fuji Biomedix, L. 2002. Final Report: Oral repeated dose 28-day toxicity study of Nattokinase DS in rats. FBM 02-2704.
Fuji Biomedix, L. 2003a. Final report: Reverse-mutation assay in bacteria. FBM 02-8766. Fuji Biomedix, L. 2003b. Final report: Chromosomal aberration test. FBM 02-8767.
Jeske, W. et al. 2011. Evaluating the effects of nattokinase on C-reactive protein levels in adults at risk for cardiovascular disease. Unpublished work