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Every day, approximately 5 litres of blood in our body travel many times through nearly 100,000,000 metres of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients and water throughout the body. With age and unhealthy lifestyle factors, blockages begin to form in blood vessels which may not be discovered until some debilitating event like heart attack or stroke occurs. Thus, maintaining a healthy circulatory system is of utmost importance to our well-being.
What Causes Blockages in the Blood Vessel?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is normally associated with plaque and blood clot (thrombus) formation which resulted from dysfunctional or injured blood vessels.
Blood clot is necessary to stop bleeding and restore damaged blood vessels. Once bleeding stops and damaged blood vessel is healed, blood clots are broken down (fibrinolytic action) naturally.
However, imbalance clotting (coagulation) and dissolving (fibrinolysis) process may prevent blood clot from breaking down properly, and thereby accumulated in the blood vessels. These abnormal blood clots, along with plaques in the arteries (blood vessels), obstruct the blood flow around the body, decreasing oxygen supply, eventually resulting in a heart attack or stroke. Blood clots in veins may lead to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism.
|DVT is blood clots formed in a vein deep in the body, usually lower leg or thigh, with symptoms such as pain and swelling on the affected leg, redness or colour change and
warmth on the skin. Pulmonary embolism usually occurs when a blood clot (DVT) travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel. This could damage the lungs and other organs as wellas cause heart failure due to lower blood oxygen levels.
How is a Blood Clot Form?
Blood clot forms when:
• Skin or blood vessel wall is broken (such as cut or internal injury)
• Cholesterol plaques in arteries break open (most heart attacks and strokes happen when a plaque inside the heart or brain suddenly burst)
• Blood does not flow properly (if blood pools in blood vessel or heart, platelets in blood are more prone to stick together and forms clots)
Blood clot formation (thrombosis)
Note: If fibrinolytic activity is decreased (for ex: age, obesity, high blood pressure), blood clot cannot be removed properly and this will increase the risk of heart attack & stroke.
|Did You Know?
In Singapore, 16 people die from cardiovascular disease (heart diseases and stroke) daily. According to statistics in 2016, cardiovascular disease accounted for 29.5% of all deaths, similar to deaths caused by cancer (29.6%). In other words, nearly 1 out of 3 deaths in Singapore is due to heart diseases or stroke. Thus, early prevention is critically important.
Nattokinase is an active ingredient extracted from a popular Japanese food known as natto. This traditional cheese-like fermented soy product has been utilised as a folk remedy for heart and circulatory diseases for over 1000 years. This may be why Japan has one of the lowest rates of coronary heart disease in the world (Report: UN Chronicle: The Atlas of Heart Disease & Stroke).
In 1980, Dr. Hiroyuki Sumi, a researcher from University of Chicago discovered that an enzyme in natto has fibrinolytic activity (ability to dissolve blood clot associated with heart attack and stroke) and named it as “nattokinase”, which means “enzyme in natto”. Nattokinase also helps to address high blood viscosity, one of the most neglected symptoms in the development of heart disease and high blood pressure.
Nattokinase has direct and indirect actions on blood clots. However, it does not inhibit the formation of blood clots, particularly in response to injury. In other words, nattokinase helps balance the body’s ability of making blood clot and declotting unwanted clots.
How Does Nattokinase Work on a Blood Clot?
Fibrin is a main component of clot. Nattokinase has strong fibrinolytic activity to dissolve web-like fibrin and break down blood clot that have already been formed, thereby removing the clot and promoting healthy blood flow and cardiovascular function.
VesseCLEAR is made from 100% pure concentrated nattokinase NSK-SD® (Natural Super Kinase-Sprayed Dried) developed by Japan Bio Science Laboratory, leader and pioneer in nattokinase. Halal and NSF certified nattokinase NSK-SD® is highly purified and extracted from non-GMO soybeans which were fermented with a patented strain of Bacillus subtilis natto, via a proprietary process to result in maximal bioavailability and stability.
It has a nattokinase activity of more than 20,000 FU/g. The recommended daily intake is at least 2,000 FU/day, which is equivalent to 100 mg of NSK-SD®. NSK-SD® was the first nattokinase introduced to the US market. Its quality is well-established and comprehensive potency and safety studies were conducted on humans. In addition,
NSK-SD® has 2 Japanese and 3 U.S. patents and is recognised by the JHFA (Japan Health and Nutrition Food Association) and JNKA (Japan NattoKinase Association) as an authentic nattokinase.
FU (fibrin unit) - an activity unit that quantifies the enzyme’s ability to lyse fibrin in vitro.
<sourced from 李超 on YouTube>
The No.1 Clinically Studied Nattokinase*
*Based on the number of clinical studies, as of Dec 2017
• Authentic nattokinase as recognised by JHFA (Japan Health and Nutrition Food Association) and JNKA (Japan NattoKinase Association)
• Clinically proven safe & effective. Backed by more than 35 studies.
• Halal* & NSF certified. Compliant with GMP & public health protection standards.
• Patented production technology. Awarded 2 Japanese patents and 3 U.S. patents for the proprietary processing technique.
• 100% natural and vegetarian formula. Non-irradiated, free of vitamin K2, purine and pungent smell. Vitamin K2 may increase blood clotting and is known to interact with and reduce the effectiveness of Warfarin (blood thinner). Purine is a risk factor for high uric acid and gout.
• Highly safe & stable. Confirmed by human clinical trials, research studies and almost 20 years of safety track records. Nattokinase NSK-SD® is stable for 42 months at room temperature and 18 months at 40oC.
*The encapsulation of NSK-SD® is not certified halal.
• High bioavailability. Nattokinase level significantly increases in blood 2 hours after intake with peak concentration at 13.3 hours. (Altern Ther Health Med. 19(3): 16-19 (2013)).
Clinically Proven Health Benefits
of Nattokinase NSK-SD®:
✓ Breaks down blood clots and enhance anticoagulant
(Balancing clotting system naturally and thus, does not increase bleeding risk)
In a human clinical trial, healthy young men (22.3 ± 0.6 years old) received either a single dose of 2,000 FU nattokinase NSK-SD® or placebo and blood samples were collected and analysed. Results show that nattokinase NSK-SD® enhances fibrinolysis (breaking down of blood clots) and anticoagulation.
✓ Reduces blood viscosity
In an in vitro study, blood samples from healthy adult individuals were incubated with nattokinase at various doses. Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was then assessed. The decrease of RBC aggregation suggests its potential benefits on patients having or at risk for cardiovascular diseases.
✓ Improves blood flow
In a human clinical trial, healthy subjects (30s – 40s years old) in the fasting state received 2,000 FU nattokinase NSK-SD® and their blood flow was measured. After a 2-week break, the same subjects received placebo under the same condition. Results showed that nattokinase NSK-SD® increased blood flow, suggesting a possible use of NSK-SD® for healthy circulation.
✓ Supports healthy blood pressure
In a human clinical trial, subjects (20 – 80 years old) with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension and initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg were given 2,000 FU nattokinase NSK-SD® or placebo per day for 8 weeks. Compared to placebo, nattokinase NSK-SD® reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), suggesting nattokinase may play a critical role in preventing and treating hypertension or high blood pressure.
✓ Promote cardiovascular health
The American Heart Association justifies C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an independent clinical marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
In a human clinical trial, subjects with cardiovascular risk factors received one dose of 2,000 FU nattokinase NSK-SD® and their blood was tested. Nattokinase demonstrated the ability to normalise levels of hs-CRP.
Nattokinase NSK-SD® is highly recommended for the following individuals:
Those concerned with heart health
Regular alcohol drinkers
Poor eating habits (diet high in fat, cholesterol and low in fibre), meat-lovers
Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity
High blood pressure, blood lipids, blood sugar or viscosity
Irregular heartbeat or pulse
Hardening or blockage of arteries (blood vessels)
Poor blood circulation, such as cold, numb or swollen hands and legs, muscle cramps, stiff shoulder, varicose veins, chronic fatigue etc.
A history of cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease, stroke etc
With family history of poor heart health or stroke issues
Reduced blood flow to limbs due to narrowed arteries with symptoms such as: - Painful cramping in hip, thigh or calf muscles when walking
- Coldness in lower leg or foot than the other side
- Weak pulse in legs or feet
- Slower growth of toenails - Shiny skin on legs
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with symptoms such as: - Mild to severe pain in the affected arm or leg
- Swelling of an arm or leg
- Redness or colour change
- Warmth in the skin
Pulmonary embolism with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath and fast heartbeat
Swollen vein in the region of the anus (haemorrhoid)
Beware of counterfeit nattokinase!
Nattokinase is a peculiar enzyme that can be identified by several test methods, including comparison of Oxidised Insulin Chain B Degradation Pattern. Despite readily available test methods, there are still many companies that claim and market counterfeit enzymes as nattokinase, including peptidase, protease and chungkinase that are produced from similar Bacillus species or fungi (Aspergillus oryzae) in Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan and the USA.
Although some of these are able to degrade fibrin in a petri dish (in vitro), there is no indication of its efficacy in the human body. Besides, the comprehensive safety and potency data of nattokinase NSK-SD® could not be applied to these counterfeit nattokinase. Here is the comparison between genuine and counterfeit nattokinase using simple test method.
Bozo Research Center, I. 2004. Report: 13-week oral toxicity study of Nattokinase DS (NSK-SD) in rats. B-5170.
Fuji Biomedix, L. 2002. Final Report: Oral repeated dose 28-day toxicity study of Nattokinase DS in rats. FBM 02-2704.
Fuji Biomedix, L. 2003a. Final report: Reverse-mutation assay in bacteria. FBM 02-8766. Fuji Biomedix, L. 2003b. Final report: Chromosomal aberration test. FBM 02-8767.
Jeske, W. et al. 2011. Evaluating the effects of nattokinase on C-reactive protein levels in adults at risk for cardiovascular disease. Unpublished work